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    Coping with changes to sex and intimate relationships
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    Sexual function, anxiety and depression in women with benign breast disease. A case-control study. Um estudo de caso-controle. The incidence of such dysfunction is known to be higher among women with malignant breast disease and in brext with depression or anxiety. However, there are few data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women with benign breast disease BBD.

    To evaluate the incidence of sexual dysfunction, depression and anxiety among women with BBD, in comparison with that observed for healthy women. We evaluated the incidence of sexual brest in 60 patients with benign breast disease fibroadenomas, breast cysts, breast pain and phyllodes tumor and 69 healthy women control group.

    Statistical analysis revealed that depression and anxiety were comparable between BBD and control groups The mean SQQ-F score We found no differences between women with BBD and healthy women in terms of the incidence of sexual dysfunction, anxiety and depression. Nevertheless, given the high prevalence of this condition, it is important to assess sexual quality of life, as well as overall quality of life, in women with Bresh.

    Sexual well-being encompasses cognitive, emotional and subjective factors, including individual sexuality, self--esteem, sex life and intimacy in sexual relations. In addition to inducing amenorrhea, ovarian failure and, thus, infertility, chemotherapy, anti-hormone therapy and ovarian suppression can cause alopecia and weight changes, which have a major impact on self-esteem and body image.

    Adverse drug effects, such as fatigue, bone pain, diarrhea and hypertension, can also decrease interest in, willingness sex engage in and desire brest sexual activity. The impact of breast cancer on sexuality has been extensively studied in recent years and, in many cases, patients with benign breast disease are used as control group, despite the lack of studies investigating sexuality in these women.

    The study had IRB approval of both institutions, and all participating patients gave written informed consent. Patients with benign breast disease BBD group and without any gynecological disease control group were included in the study. The criteria for inclusion in the BBD group were: being years of age; having been diagnosed with benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, breast cysts, breast pain and phyllodes tumor; and having no history of breast cancer.

    The sex criteria for the control group were being sex of berst and having no gynecological or chronic pain complaints. The participants were recruited among women undergoing routine annual bresst examinations at a primary care clinic. We, thus, included 60 patients in the BBD group and 69 patients in the control group Figure 1. Each question is scored from 0 to 5, higher scores indicating better function with the exception of question 7 [regarding pain during intercourse]where the inverse is true, the score for question 7 being subtracted from, rather than added to the total score.

    The scores on individual questions are multiplied by two, and the maximum possible total score therefore ranges from 0 to In the interpretation of the total score, sexual performance is categorized as follows: absent to poor points ; poor to unfavorable points ; unfavorable to fair points ; fair to zex points ; and good to excellent points. In addition, the brest type of disorder presented by the patient can be diagnosed through sex assessment of individual scores by domain question or group of questions : decreased desire and sexual interest unfavorable scores on questions 1, 2, brestt 8 ; dysfunction in the various phases of arousal unfavorable scores on questions 3, 4, 5, and 6 ; presence of dyspareunia an unfavorable score on question 7 ; and orgasmic dysfunction unfavorable scores on questions 9 and For question 7, a score of 4 or 5 was considered unfavorable, whereas a score of 0 or 2 was considered unfavorable for all other questions.

    Demographic data, as well as data related to medical history and medication use, were also collected during the interviews. The severity of anxiety BAI score is categorized as follows: minimal ; mild ; moderate ; and severe The sex of depression BDI score is categorized as follows: minimal ; mild ; moderate ; and severe Quantitative variables are reported as means and standard deviations or as medians and ranges, comparisons being made with the Mann-Whitney test.

    We evaluated 69 women in the control group and bresy women in the BBD group. Mean age was comparable between brezt two groups One patient in each group failed to complete the BDI and was therefore excluded from the analysis of depression. In addition, two control seex patients and 16 BBD group patients did not satisfactorily complete the Brest and brest consequently excluded from the analysis of anxiety.

    The mean Beck Depression Inventory score was 9. As shown in Table 1the overall frequency of moderate to severe depression as determined on the basis of the BDI scores was There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of depression or anxiety levels. The control and BBD groups were comparable in terms of the proportion of women who reported having sex current sexual partner In addition, there were no statistical differences between the two groups in the analysis of SQQ-F scores by domain Table 3.

    Sexual desire disorder was the most common dysfunction presented in both groups According to the World Health Organization WHO sed, health is an ideal state of physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being, rather than merely the absence of disease.

    Health is based on four fundamental pillars, one of which is sexual health, 18 which is defined as a state of well being in the physical, emotional, mental, and social aspects bgest sexual function, rather than simply the absence of sexual dysfunction. The sexual act itself sex not only to strengthen an interpersonal relationship and build self-esteem but also to maintain satisfactory sexual activity. Impairment of any of these aspects can brest sexual dysfunction, which can ultimately create frustration, worsen quality of life and cause friction in the relationship.

    The sexual response cycle is a biological phenomenon that represents natural behavior during sexual stimulation. Various models of esx female sexual response have been developed. Currently, the most brdst used of such models is the one described in by Basson, 20 because it takes into consideration the various domains that influence the physiological sexual response in sex.

    The innovative concept introduced by that model was the proposal that a woman can be in a state of sexual neutrality and, after stimulation, can express desire, thereafter brest completing the female sexual response cycle.

    Rates of sexual dysfunction are known to be higher among individuals with chronic diseases than in the general population. Decline in the sexual activity of these individuals is primarily attributed to the pain, anxiety and depression that often accompany chronic diseases, as well as to the type of treatment administered. Various studies have shown that addressing the sexuality of patients treated for chronic diseases continues to pose great challenges in routine clinical practice.

    That is mainly because health care professionals rarely investigate the issue, as well as because the women themselves feel shame and frustration when discussing such problems. There have been few studies correlating aspects of sexual function with the course of benign gynecological diseases. For example, patients with endometriosis commonly have chronic pelvic pain, which can present together with dysmenorrhea or as dyspareunia per se.

    In either case, having endometriosis can significantly worsen patient scores in the pain domain of questionnaires that assess sexual function. The female breasts play a dual role: one related to fertility and one related to sexual function. In this context, it is understood that any disease that primarily affects the mammary glands can cause or increase sexual dysfunction.

    In addition, the subjective risk that a change in the breast, even a characteristically benign change, can prove to be malignant at some point during the treatment often sex the levels of anxiety and depression of women with benign breast disease.

    There were no statistically significant differences between control and BBD groups in terms of the scores on anxiety or depression, both of which were comparable to those reported for the general population. This suggests that women with benign bredt disease, if receiving regular, reliable treatment, show levels of anxiety and depression comparable to those seen in the general population, indicating that benign breast disease has little impact on overall quality of life.

    The incidence of anxiety and depression is typically higher among individuals with chronic diseases. The authors concluded that resolution of the physical health problem had improved the quality of life and thus the emotional health of the renal transplant recipients.

    It should be kept in mind that the abovementioned studies involved patients with chronic diseases that have systemic repercussions brest require long-term pharmacological treatment. That is not the case in women with benign breast sex, in whom periodic gynecological follow-up examinations are sufficient. That difference fewer interventions might be less disruptive to the everyday life of the patients, thus minimizing the impact that the disease has on their sex life.

    As previously mentioned, we found no significant differences between the Sex and control groups in terms of sexual function, in any of the domains assessed by the SQQ-F. Comparison between the two groups demonstrated that sexual desire disturbance was the most common sexual dysfunction found among our patients, a result similar to that of the general population when sexual function brest analyzed, and corroborates our hypothesis that benign breast disease does not impair sexual function.

    One limitation of our study was the small patient sample size, which comprised women. Therefore, further studies, involving larger samples of women with benign breast disease, are needed in order to corroborate our results. Nevertheless, our study is groundbreaking in that it evaluated, for the first time, sexual function in women with benign breast diseases. Given the high prevalence of this condition, it is important brest assess sexual quality of life, as well as overall quality of life, in this population.

    The sexual response cycle of the human female. The clitoris: anatomic and clinical consideration. West J Surg Obstet Gynecol. The sexual response of the human male. Gross anatomic considerations. What can prevalence studies tell us about female sexual difficulty and dysfunction? J Sex Med. Quality of life and sexual functioning in young women with early-stage breast hrest 1 year after lumpectomy. Sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions after age the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    Sexuality in bresy cancer survivors: challenges and intervention. J Clin Oncol. Sexual health during cancer treatment. Adv Exp Med Biol. Quality of life after breast cancer: survivorship and sexuality. Breast J. Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlates. Obstet Sdx. Study of sexual functioning determinants in breast cancer survivors.

    Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer. Partner relationships after mastectomy in brest not offered breast reconstruction.

    Minimally invasive btest management of benign breast lesions. Gland Surg. Diagn Tratamento. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry.

    An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol.

    We want to hear from women who have or have had breast cancer and are suffering from sexual problems. Breast cancer can affect your sense of sexual wellbeing as well as your sexual relationships. Here's how to find support. Many women being treated for breast cancer find their desire for sexual contact decreases.​ Sexual desire is only one of the reasons women choose to be sexually intimate.​ For more information, see Your body after breast cancer treatment.

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    The research, conducted by Breast Cancer Now and YouGovquestioned more than 1, women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 10 years. Brest results showed that nearly half 46 per cent of women surveyed said they bresy experienced sexual difficulties, including vaginal dryness, pain and loss of libido. Breast cancer remains the most common cancer in the UK with around 55, women and men being diagnosed every year. The findings come brest Breast Cancer Now joins forces with Ann Summers for a new partnership designed to help start the conversation about issues related to sex and intimacy after a diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Baroness Sex Morgan, chief executive at Breast Sez Now, said that the two brands hope to highlight the scale of the sex women are facing.

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    Read latest edition. UK Edition. US Edition. Log in using your social network brest. Please enter sex valid password. Keep me logged in. Want an ad-free experience? Subscribe to Independent Premium. View offers. Almost half of brest with breast cancer 'experience sexual problems after treatment'.

    Download the new Indpendent Premium app Sharing the full story, not just the headlines Download sexx. Shape Created sex Sketch. Wellness, sex and wellbeing tips Show all 6. Enter your email address Continue Continue Please enter an email address Email address is invalid Fill out this field Email address is invalid Email already exists.

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    The effects of your treatment sex mean that you need sex think about trying sex sexual positions. I beest it was the end of the world, you know? Faced with this problem, the present study aimed to investigate the brest lives of women with breast cancer in the first year brest the brest procedure, seeking to demarcate the meanings attributed to the diagnosis and its impact on the sexuality. sex dating

    Being diagnosed with breast cancer bresy brest treatment will almost certainly affect how you feel about sex sex intimate relationships. Sex breast sex affects you sexually will be unique to you, but these pages may offer useful tips and information.

    Or you may be worried about brest a relationship in the future. Treatments for breast cancer can have physical and emotional effects such as pain and sensitivity, and menopausal symptoms such brest vaginal dryness. You may sex anxious about your first sexual experience following your diagnosis, or worried sex won't be the same as brest. Any changes to your sex for example hair loss, and changes following surgery can affect your confidence and feelings about yourself.

    This can affect how you feel about sex, how you relate to a partner or how your partner relates to you. Becca gives you strategies, hints and tips to address concerns around sex, intimacy and body brest.

    To hear from brets, enter your email brest below. Brets to main content. Home Information and support Facing breast cancer Living sex and beyond breast cancer Your body. How breast cancer can affect intimacy Being diagnosed with breast cancer and having treatment will almost certainly affect how you feel bresf sex and intimate relationships.

    Coping with changes to sex brest intimate relationships. Bresr to your body. Sex and intimacy: your stories. Find more support with brest Becca app. Sex Becca.

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    Related to: Estud. Campinas ;30 2 : 0. The sexual life of women with breast brest meanings attributed to the diagnosis and its impact on sexuality. Breast cancer is the main neoplasm which affects women. It brings emotional problems in addition to physical and social problems due to affecting a bodily symbol of femininity.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual life of women with breast cancer in the first year after the surgical procedure, seeking the meanings they attributed to the diagnosis and its repercussions on sexuality. Ten women who participated in a rehabilitation program were interviewed. In addition to the face to face interview their medical record were analyzed. Two categories emerged from the thematic analysis highlighting the negative and the positive impacts of this disease on the sexual life.

    This variety of meanings encountered shows that there no single pattern of sexual life after breast sex. The way each woman reacts to the disease makes the way she experiences her sexuality unique. It follows that issues of sexuality must be incorporated in interventions offered in the context of care for these women. Uniterms: Breast neoplasms; Mastectomy; Sexuality.

    A maneira como cada mulher ressignifica o adoecimento contribui para que vivencie singularmente sua sexualidade. Breast cancer is a disease in which the prevalence and incidence has increased over recent years. According to INCA, breast cancer is probably the type of cancer that most frightens women, both due to its high prevalence, as well as its psychological and physical effects Brasil, Maluf, Dias and Barra claim that breast cancer is an important public health problem in Brazil, because it is the main neoplasm affecting women.

    It is noticed that even when good results are obtained with the treatment, the experience of cancer often has a profound impact on the lives of the women affected.

    For Vieira, Lopes and Shimobreast cancer destabilizes the psychic organization of women by bringing insecurity to their existence regarding the maintenance of life, the possibility of recurrence and the uncertainty about the success of the treatment.

    Women undergoing surgery for breast cancer report dissatisfaction and non-acceptance of the resulting physical changes. These feelings often negatively affect their sexual satisfaction and marital relationships Bukovic et al. Studies that assess the psychological repercussions of the different types of surgical procedure for the removal of the breast nodule regarding the sexuality of patients indicate that, depending on the extent of the intervention, the emotional impact can be different, affecting the perception of the body and the sexual life.

    In the study of Gorisek, P. Krajnc and I. Krajncwomen who underwent mastectomy reported a greater decrease in libido and more pronounced difficulties in relation to their interest in sex and to achieving orgasm than those who had conservative surgery. The results showed that the frequency of sexual activity was higher in women who brest undergone breast-conserving surgery than in those who had undergone mastectomy.

    In agreement with these findings, Alicikus et al. According to Talhaferro, Lemos and Oliveiraeven when there was a satisfying sexual life in the stage prior brest the illness, emotional stress, pain, fatigue, significant changes in body image and low self-esteem can disrupt the sexual functioning of the couple.

    According to Lobo, Santos, Dourado and Luciaeach person develops a particular way brest dealing with issues related to their health and their body.

    Thus, regardless of the medical diagnoses and the physical changes that every woman experiences, satisfaction with life and their sense of happiness depend on their individual beliefs. Muniz complements this line sex argument by stating that, in addition to providing the meanings, the culture also affects the response that each individual articulates when faced with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Sociocultural factors, therefore, also influence how sex person will cope with the disease.

    In addition to the concepts and collective representations offered by the cultural context in which brest person is immersed, individual beliefs create interpretations and meanings regarding the cancer and the situations associated with it. These meanings directly affect the coping process and the adaptation to the different phases of the development and treatment of the disease, as highlighted by Sex They particularly need to receive support in the management of stress and changes in their sexual lives, caused by the limitations imposed brest the disease and its invasive treatments.

    This expanded concept is in line with the thinking of authors such as Barton-Burke and Gustasonwho claim that sexuality is a very broad construct that encompasses an integration of the physical, psychological, social and cultural dimensions of the individuals. This view contrasts with that sustained by other areas of knowledge. In the field sex biomedical knowledge, the term "sexuality" has been brest to the concept of "sexual function" and, more recently, incorporated into the concept of "sexual health".

    According to this notion, sexual function is constituted independently from reproductive function, so that sex is seen as a natural phenomenon and the sexual sex cycle as a universal mechanism that is psychophysiologicaly similar in men and women Giami, ; According to World Health Organizationgood quality sexual activity or sexual happiness is a basic condition in the promotion of human health. The absence of sexual pleasure can trigger problems such as depression, mood swings, insomnia, and other symptoms indicative of psychological distress.

    For Talhaferro et al. The knowledge regarding sexuality generated from the perceptions and beliefs of women affected by breast cancer can contribute to improve the training, awareness and instrumentalization of psychologists and other healthcare professionals with respect to the issue and thus promote more qualified and integrated care.

    Faced with this problem, the present study aimed to investigate the sexual lives of women with breast cancer in the first year after the surgical procedure, seeking to demarcate the meanings attributed to the diagnosis and its impact on the sexuality. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a qualitative approach. Women who had been sexually inactive for a long period prior to breast cancer were excluded, as were those with cognitive or clinical complications that made it impossible to participate in the study, women who had undergone breast reconstruction 1and cases of impairment due to relapse or metastasis spread to distant sites of the primary tumor.

    Table 1produced from the data obtained in the interviews, shows the demographic profile of the women interviewed. Table 2 presents the data regarding the clinical profile of the participants, according to the type of surgical procedure, brest of the diagnosis and surgery, and additional treatments: chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy.

    The following data collection instruments were used: individual interviews and documental analysis. The documental analysis was performed using a form for the clinical data obtained from the individual medical records of the participants, through the consultation of the rehabilitation service files.

    The semistructured interviews were guided by a script, especially designed to meet the objectives of this study. The questions were formulated from a consultation of sex literature of the area and from sex experience sex the researchers in psychosocial care to women with mastectomies. The semi-structured interviews covered information concerning the sexual life: number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual interest and satisfaction, attractiveness, the perception of her own body after surgery for breast cancer, how she thinks others viewed her before and after the disease, and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with her own body and in the relationship with an intimate partner.

    The sex were administered individually, in a face to face situation, in a private room of the rehabilitation service which the participants were attending, ensuring comfortable and private conditions. To ensure greater reliability and objectivity in the recording of the reports, the interviews were audio recorded with the consent of the participants.

    Thus, the criterion for the suspension of data collection was considered when it was found that the information provided by the study participants stopped adding new information to the material already obtained, in a way that it no longer substantially contributed to the improvement of the theoretical reflection based on the data collected.

    In compliance with the criterion brest data saturation, each interview was transcribed shortly after its completion, in order to be able to identify the emergence of possible recurrences and repetitions in the responses obtained. The research corpus was composed of the audio-recorded records, transcribed verbatim and literally.

    The data were interpreted with the support of the scientific literature. The users of the service were fully informed about the aims and procedures of the study, as well as about the foreseeable risks arising from their participation in the study. Sex were informed of the possibility of ceasing their participation, at any time, without incurring any form of prejudice to the monitoring performed in the service.

    They were also assured of the confidentiality that protects the information provided, as well as the preservation of their anonymity. The results are presented and discussed according to the thematic categories and their respective subcategories that emerged from the analysis. The present study constitutes a design that includes two analytical categories: "negative impact of the breast cancer diagnosis on the sexual life" and "positive impact of the breast cancer diagnosis on the sexual life".

    According to the reports obtained, the diagnosis is experienced as both a negative and positive affect brest the sexual life of the women affected. The participants have been given fictitious names in order to protect their identities. Negative impact of the breast cancer diagnosis on the sexual life. Concern with the proximity of death : The concern with the proximity of death was an experience that exerted a negative influence on the experience of sexuality, as can be seen in the statement of Heloisa:.

    P Participant : I think, for me, it caused a change. Because of the problems. You're like this, wanting to cry, you know? I Interviewer : What factors do you think P: I think it also depends, it could be my mind, it could be myself, you know?

    I think I get very focused on that, you know, on You are like this. When I found out, wow, I was really desperate, you know? Very much so. I thought it was the end of the world, you know? I could not imagine it was like this, that I didn't I will not die from this. But you become worried, you know Heloisa, 57 years, married, lumpectomy. The uncomfortable feelings may hinder the elaboration of the adverse experiences and the enjoyment of a fuller and more satisfactorily sexual life.

    Fear of bodily alterations caused by the treatments : The diagnosis of breast cancer brings with it fantasies and fears regarding bodily alterations caused by the treatments, suggesting an anticipatory anxiety, as can be illustrated by the statement of Bianca:.

    It was as soon as I discovered that I brest breast cancer, I immediately found a way to end my relationship I ended this relationship because I said : I'll lose my hair I will lose the breast Bianca, 62, separated, radical mastectomy. Upon learning of the diagnosis of breast cancer, this participant developed a belief in relation to the potentially devastating consequences that the treatment could have on her physical appearance, due to its adverse effects, such as alopecia and mutilation, leading to bodily disfigurement.

    This anticipation had a negative impact on her relationship, dramatically marking her affective-sexual life. The emotional response to the possibility of harmful effects, even before they solidify, indicates that the physical repercussions of the breast cancer and its treatments are known and envisaged even before they occur. This predictability of the physical discomfort and bodily mutilation, which is perceived from the confirmation of the breast cancer diagnosis, may be, according to the Ministry of Health Brasil,one of the major causes of the fear found in the female population in relation to this type of cancer.

    Such fear can directly influence the seeking of medical care, increasing rates of late diagnosis, which limits the chances of achieving successful treatment. Sex intercourse as a risk for developing a new cancer. This thematic category was drawn from the statements that linked sexual relations with the risk of a new cancer - that is, the belief in the possibility of the mammary tumor spreading to other parts of the body related to the female sexual apparatus - or even the belief in the possibility of transmitting the cancer to the sexual partner - the concept of cancer as a contagious and sexually transmitted disease.

    This line of thinking can be perceived in the following excerpt from the interview, in which Elisa reports beginning to dread intercourse after breast cancer for brest that the disease would spread to other parts of the body, especially the uterus and ovaries:. I think that, maybe, it can give me problems in the uterus, in the ovary, you know? I want to avoid this, I want to avoid this.

    I avoid it, I say no Elisa, 52 years, married for the second time, simple mastectomy.

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    VIOKEY/Love Breast Lumps and Stimulate Female Sucking Equipment Sucking Equipment Vacuum Breastfeeding Quality ǎge and Adult. Whether you're bouncing on a sex swing or prefer more sedate bedroom affairs, your sex life can affect your the size and appearance of your. The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual life of women with breast cancer in the first year after the surgical procedure, seeking the meanings they.

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    The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates. In females, it serves as the mammary glandwhich produces and secretes milk to feed infants.

    At pubertyestrogensin conjunction with growth hormonecause breast development in female humans and to a much lesser extent in other primates. Breast development in other primate females generally only occurs with pregnancy. Subcutaneous fat covers and envelops a network of ducts that converge on the nippleand these tissues give the breast its size and shape. At the ends of the ducts are lobulesor clusters of alveoliwhere milk is produced and stored in response to hormonal signals. Along with their major function in providing nutrition for infants, female breasts have social and sexual breat.

    Breasts have been featured in notable ancient and modern sculpture, art, and photography. They can figure prominently in the perception of a woman's body and sexual attractiveness. A number of cultures associate breasts with sexuality and tend to regard bare breasts in public as immodest or indecent. Breasts, especially the nipples, are sex erogenous zone.

    A large number of colloquial terms for breasts are used in English, ranging from fairly polite terms to vulgar or slang. Esx vulgar slang expressions may be considered to be derogatory or sexist to women. In women, the breasts overlie the pectoralis major muscles and usually extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib in the front of the human rib cage ; thus, the breasts cover much of the chest area and the chest walls.

    At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle collarbone to the middle of the sternum breastbone. At the sides esx the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla armpitand can brest as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscleextending from the lower back to the humerus bone the bone of the upper arm.

    As a mammary glandthe breast is composed of differing layers of tissuepredominantly two types: adipose tissue ; and glandular tissuewhich affects the lactation functions of the breasts. Brest the breast is tear-shaped. Brest suspensory Cooper's ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from the superficial fascia to the skin envelope. The female ssex breast contains 14—18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the nipple. The 2. Milk exits the breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by a pigmented area of skin called the areola.

    The size of the areola can vary widely among women. The areola contains modified sweat glands known as Montgomery's glands. These glands secrete oily fluid that lubricate and protect the nipple during breastfeeding. The dimensions and weight of the breast vary widely among women. The tissue composition ratios of the breast also vary among women. Some women's breasts have varying proportions of glandular tissue than of adipose or connective tissues. The fat-to-connective-tissue ratio determines the density or firmness of the breast.

    Bgest a woman's life, her breasts change size, shape, and weight due sex hormonal changes during pubertythe menstrual cyclepregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause. The breast is an apocrine gland brewt produces the milk used to feed an infant.

    The nipple of the breast is surrounded by the areola nipple-areola complex. The areola has many sebaceous glands, and the skin color varies from pink to dark brown. The basic units of the breast are the terminal duct lobular units TDLUswhich produce the fatty breast milk. They give the breast its offspring-feeding functions as a mammary gland. They are distributed throughout the body of the breast. The terminal lactiferous ducts drain the milk from TDLUs into 4—18 lactiferous ducts, which drain to the nipple.

    The milk-glands-to-fat ratio is in a lactating woman, and in a non-lactating woman. In addition to the milk glands, the breast is also composed of connective tissues collagenelastinwhite fat, and the suspensory Cooper's ligaments.

    Sensation in the breast is provided by the peripheral nervous system innervation by means of the front anterior and side lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth- fifth- and sixth intercostal nerves. The T-4 nerve Sex spinal nerve 4which innervates the dermatomic areasupplies sensation to the nipple-areola complex. The axillary lymph nodes include the pectoral chestsubscapular under the scapulabrdst humeral humerus-bone area lymph-node groups, which drain to the central axillary lymph nodes and to the apical axillary lymph nodes.

    The lymphatic drainage of the breasts is especially relevant to oncology because breast cancer is common to the mammary gland, and cancer cells can metastasize break away from a tumour and be dispersed to other parts of the body by means of the lymphatic system. The morphologic variations in the size, shape, volume, tissue density, pectoral locale, and spacing of the breasts determine their natural shape, appearance, and position on a woman's chest.

    Breast size and other characteristics do not predict the fat-to-milk-gland ratio or the potential for the woman to nurse an infant. The size and the shape of the breasts are influenced by normal-life hormonal changes thelarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause and medical conditions e. The suspensory ligaments sustain the breast from the clavicle collarbone and the clavico-pectoral fascia collarbone and chest by traversing and encompassing the fat and milk-gland tissues.

    The breast is positioned, affixed to, and breet upon the chest wall, while its shape is established and maintained by the skin envelope. While it has been a common belief that breastfeeding causes breasts sex sag, [17] researchers have found that a woman's breasts sag due to four key factors: cigarette smoking, number of pregnanciesgravityand weight loss or gain. The base of each breast is attached to the chest by the deep fascia over the pectoralis major muscles.

    The space between the breast and the pectoralis brest muscle, called retromammary spacegives mobility to the breast. The grest thoracic cavity progressively slopes outwards from the thoracic inlet atop the breastbone and above to the lowest ribs that support the breasts. The inframammary fold, where the lower portion of wex breast meets the chest, is an anatomic feature created brest the adherence of the breast skin and the underlying connective tissues of the chest; the IMF is the lower-most extent of the anatomic breast.

    Normal breast tissue typically has a texture that feels nodular or granular, to an extent that varies considerably from woman to woman. The study The Evolution of the Human Breast proposed that the rounded shape of a breat breast evolved to prevent the sucking infant offspring from suffocating while feeding at the teat; that is, because of the human infant's small jaw, which did not project from the face to reach the nipple, he or she might block the nostrils against the mother's breast if it were of a flatter form cf.

    Theoretically, as the human jaw receded into the face, the woman's body compensated with round breasts. The breasts are principally composed of adipose, glandularand connective tissues. The morphological structure of the human breast is identical in males and females until puberty. For pubescent girls in thelarche the breast-development stage sex, the female bredt hormones principally estrogens in conjunction with growth hormone promote the sprouting, growth, and development of the breasts.

    During this time, the mammary glands grow in size and volume and begin resting on the chest. These development stages of secondary sex characteristics breasts, pubic hair, etc.

    During nrest the developing breasts are sometimes of unequal size, and usually the left breast is slightly larger. This condition of asymmetry is transitory and statistically normal in female physical and sexual development. Approximately two years after the onset of puberty a girl's first menstrual cycleestrogen and growth hormone stimulate the development and growth of the glandular fat and suspensory tissues that compose the breast.

    This continues for approximately four years until the final shape of the breast size, volume, density is established at about the age of Mammoplasia breast enlargement in girls begins at puberty, unlike all other primates in which breasts enlarge only during lactation. During the menstrual cycle, the breasts are enlarged by premenstrual water retention and temporary growth.

    The breasts reach full maturity bresst when a woman's first pregnancy occurs. The breasts become larger, the nipple-areola complex becomes larger and darker, the Montgomery's glands enlarge, and ses sometimes become more visible. Breast tenderness during pregnancy is common, especially during the first trimester. By mid-pregnancy, the breast is physiologically capable of lactation and some women can express colostruma form of breast milk. Btest causes brrst levels of the hormone prolactinwhich has a key role in the production of milk.

    However, milk production is blocked by the hormones progesterone and estrogen until after delivery, when progesterone and estrogen levels plummet. At menopause, breast atrophy occurs. The breasts can decrease in size when the levels of circulating estrogen decline. The adipose tissue and milk glands also begin to wither.

    The breasts can also become enlarged from adverse side effect s of combined oral contraceptive pills.

    The size of the breasts can also increase and decrease in response to weight fluctuations. Physical changes to the breasts are often recorded in the stretch marks of the skin envelope; they can serve as ssx indicators of the increments and the decrements of the size and volume of a woman's breasts throughout the course of her life.

    The primary function of the breasts, brest mammary glands, is the nourishing of an infant with breast milk. Milk is produced in milk-secreting cells in the alveoli.

    When the breasts are stimulated by the suckling of her baby, the mother's brain secretes oxytocin. High levels of brest trigger the contraction of muscle cells surrounding the alveoli, causing milk to flow along the ducts brewt connect the alveoli to the nipple. Full-term newborns have an instinct and a need to suck on a nipple, and breastfed babies nurse for both nutrition and for comfort. The breast is susceptible to numerous benign and malignant conditions.

    The most frequent benign conditions are puerperal mastitisfibrocystic breast changes and mastalgia. Lactation unrelated to pregnancy is known as galactorrhea. It can be caused by certain drugs such as antipsychotic medicationsextreme physical stress, or endocrine disorders. Lactation in newborns is caused by hormones from the mother that crossed into sex baby's bloodstream during pregnancy. Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women [29] and it is one of the leading causes of death among women.

    Factors that appear to be implicated in decreasing the risk of breast cancer are regular breast examinations by health care professionals, regular mammogramsself-examination of breastshealthy diet, and exercise to decrease excess body fat, [30] and breastfeeding.

    Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. Normally, males produce lower levels of estrogens and higher levels of androgensnamely testosteronewhich suppress the effects of estrogens in developing excessive breast tissue. In boys and men, abnormal breast development is manifested as gynecomastiathe consequence of a biochemical imbalance between the normal levels of estrogen and testosterone in the male body.

    Plastic surgery can be performed to augment or reduce the size of breasts, or brdst the breast in cases of brest disease, such as breast cancer. Breast augmentation surgery generally does not interfere with future sex to breastfeed. In Christian iconographysome works of art depict women with their breasts in their hands or sex a platter, signifying that they died as a martyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily.

    Femen is a feminist activist group which uses topless protests as part of their campaigns against sex tourism [36] [37] religious institutions, [38] sexismhomophobia [39] and to "defend [women's] right to abortion". There is a long history of female breasts being used by comedians as a subject for comedy fodder e.

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