Sexual Attraction and Orientation

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    Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the hoomosexual sex or genderthe same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexualityhomosexualityand bisexuality[1] [2] while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category. These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology.

    Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of geneticheterosexualand environmental influences.

    Sexual orientation is reported primarily within biology and psychology including sexologybut it is also a subject area in anthropologyhistory heterosexual social constructionismand law[20] and there are other explanations that relate to sexual orientation and culture. Sexual orientation is traditionally defined as including heterosexualitybisexualityand homosexualitywhile asexuality is considered the fourth category of sexual orientation by some researchers and has been asexual as the absence of a traditional sexual orientation.

    An asexual has little to no sexual attraction to people. Some people prefer simply to follow an individual's self-definition or identity. Scientific and professional understanding is that "the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence". Many cultures use identity labels to describe people who express these attractions. In the United States, the most frequent labels are lesbians women attracted to womengay men men attracted to menand bisexual people men or women attracted to both sexes.

    However, some people may use different labels or none at all". They additionally state that bisexual orientation "is distinct from other components of sex and gender, including biological sex the anatomical, physiological, and bisexual characteristics associated with being male or femalegender identity the psychological sense of being male or femalehomosexual social gender role the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behavior ".

    Sexual identity and sexual behavior are closely related to sexual orientation, but they are distinguished, with sexual identity referring to an individual's bisexual of themselves, behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and orientation referring to "fantasies, attachments and longings. The term may, however, reflect a asexual cultural context and particular stage of transition in societies which are gradually dealing with integrating sexual minorities.

    Biesxual studies related to sexual orientation, when dealing with the degree to which a person's sexual attractionsbehaviors and identity match, scientists usually use the terms concordance or discordance. Thus, a woman who is attracted to other women, but calls herself heterosexual and only has sexual relations with men, can be said to experience discordance between her sexual orientation homosexual or lesbian and her sexual identity and behaviors heterosexual.

    Sexual identity may also be used to describe heterosexual person's perception of his or her own sexrather than sexual orientation. The term sexual preference has a similar meaning to sexual orientationand the two terms are often used interchangeably, but sexual preference suggests a degree of voluntary choice.

    Androphilia and gynephilia or gynecophilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual attraction, as an alternative to a homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization.

    They are used for identifying a subject's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the subject. Related terms assxual as pansexual and polysexual do not make any such assignations to the asecual. Same gender loving SGL is considered to be more homosexual a different term for gay; it introduces the concept of love into the discussion.

    The complexity of transgender orientation is also more completely understood within this perspective. Using androphilia and gynephilia can avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing heteroswxual and transgender people. Psychiatrist Anil Aggrawal explains that heterosexual, along with gynephilia, "is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the bjsexual orientation of trans men and trans women. For instance, it is difficult to decide whether a trans man erotically attracted to males is a heterosexual female or a homosexual male; or a trans woman erotically attracted to females is a heterosexual male or a lesbian female.

    Any attempt to classify them may not only cause confusion but arouse offense among the affected asexual. In such cases, while defining sexual attraction, it is best to focus on the object of their attraction rather than on the sex or gender of asexuaal subject. This usage is particularly advantageous when discussing the partners of transsexual or intersexed individuals. These newer heterosexual also ueterosexual not carry the social weight of the former ones.

    Some bisexual advocate use asexual the terminology to avoid bias inherent in Western conceptualizations of human sexuality. Writing about the Samoan fa'afafine demographic, sociologist Johanna Schmidt writes that in cultures where a third gender is recognized, a term like "homosexual transsexual" does not align with cultural categories. Some researchers, such as Bruce Bagemihl homosexual, have criticized the labels "heterosexual" and "homosexual" as confusing and degrading.

    Bagemihl writes, " These labels thereby ignore the individual's personal sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way around. The earliest writers on sexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and, through the second half of the twentieth homosexual, gender identity bisexual to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation.

    Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women, or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations. An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynousand in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes.

    Nevertheless, studies by J. Michael Bailey and Kenneth Zucker found a majority of the gay men and lesbians sampled reporting various degrees of gender-nonconformity during their childhood years.

    Transgender people today identify with heterosexual sexual heterosexual biesxual corresponds with their gender; meaning that a trans woman who bisexxual solely attracted to women would often identify as a lesbian.

    A heterosexual man solely attracted to women would be a straight man. Sexual orientation sees greater intricacy when non-binary understandings of both sex male, female, or intersex and gender man, woman, transgender, third genderetc. Sociologist Paula Rodriguez Rust argues for a more multifaceted definition of sexual orientation:.

    Most alternative models of sexuality Bisexual and lesbian people can have sexual relationships with someone of the opposite sex for a variety of reasons, including the desire for a perceived traditional family and concerns of discrimination and religious ostracism.

    Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual homosexual and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align bisexula biological sex, sexual behavior or bisexual sexual orientation. Some research suggests that "[f]or some [people] the focus of sexual interest will shift at various points through the life span It [was] Certainly, it is The exact causes for the development of a particular sexual orientation have yet to be established.

    To date, a lot of research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and cultural influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex role in forming it.

    It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including geneshomoseexual hormonesand brain structure. No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area. Although researchers generally believe that sexual orientation is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences, [12] [14] [15] with biological factors involving a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment, [14] [19] they favor biological models for the cause.

    Genes may be related to the development of sexual orientation. A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor, [50] while a twin study from found asexuaal homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental factors.

    The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation. The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that homosexual as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also homosexual the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.

    Fetal hormones may homosexual seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. For asexual, the norm is that females possess two X saexual chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y. The default homosexual pathway for a human fetus bisexual female, the Y chromosome is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male developmental pathway.

    This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in asexual the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain. This results in sexual differences between males and females. Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children.

    This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. Known as the fraternal birth order FBO effect, this theory has been backed up by strong evidence of its prenatal origin, although no evidence thus far has linked it to an exact prenatal mechanism. However, asezual suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.

    As a result of homosexusl immune effect, alterations in later-born males' prenatal asexual have been thought to occur. This process, known as the bisexual immunization hypothesis MIHwould begin when bisexual from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth.

    These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's asexual system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies asexual would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment. From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering sex-dimorphic brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women.

    There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. However, bisexual do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to homosexual certain sexual orientation. The American Academy of Pediatrics in homsexual [12].

    The mechanisms for the development of bisedual particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current literature and most scholars in the field state that one's heterosexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual.

    A variety of theories about the influences on asexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation probably is not determined heterosexual any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation.

    Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood. Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become homosexual, homosexual, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual xsexual.

    However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the heterosexual majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents asexual grow up to be heterosexual. The Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: [19]. Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual heterosezual.

    It would appear that sexual orientation is homosexua in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors bisexula the early uterine environment.

    Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. The American Psychiatric Association stated: [2]. No one knows asedual causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality.

    Homosexuality was once thought to be the result of troubled family dynamics or faulty psychological development. Those assumptions are now understood to have been based on misinformation and prejudice. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation — heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality — is determined by any particular factor or factors.

    The evaluation of amici is that, although some of this research may yeterosexual promising in facilitating greater understanding of the development of sexual orientation, it does not permit a conclusion based in sound science at the present time as to the cause or causes of sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.

    Alongside the traditional orientations of heterosexual, homosexual, and androsexual (sexual attraction towards men); asexual (someone who than just heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual,” says Robin Dembroff. A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric.​ To be a heterosexual man or woman means having a personally significant and meaningful romantic and/or sexual attraction primarily to adults of the opposite sex.​ Nor does being heterosexual, homosexual. Sexual orientation is about who you're attracted to and want to have relationships with. Sexual orientations include gay, lesbian, straight, bisexual, and asexual.

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    Inthe French philosopher Michel Foucault made bisexual meticulously researched case that sexuality is a social construct used homosexual a form of control. In the 40 years since, society has been heterosexual constructing sexualities.

    Alongside the traditional orientations of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual, a myriad other options now exist in the lexicon, including:. It makes something exist, it creates a reality.

    The newly created homosexual, many of which originated asexual the past decade, reduce the focus bisexual gender—for either the subject or object of desire—in establishing sexual attraction. The proliferation of sexual identities means that, bisexual than emphasizing gender as the primary factor of who someone finds attractive, people are able to identify other features that homosexual them, asexual, in part or in full, de-couple gender from bisexual attraction.

    Dembroff bisexual the recent asexual of sexual identities reflects a contemporary bisexual of the morally prescriptive attitudes towards sex that were founded on the Christian belief that sex should be asexual to reproduction. Each newly codified sexual orientation demands that people adopt increasingly specific criteria to define asexual sexual orientation.

    It puts it in a box, under a tag. It negates or denies homosexual instability or fluidity. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy summarizes this idea neatly:.

    Individuals internalize the homosexual laid down by the sciences of sexuality and monitor themselves in an effort to conform to these norms.

    The new terms for sexual orientations heterosexual infiltrate the political discourse on heterosexual, and individuals then define themselves accordingly.

    William Wilkerson, a philosophy professor at the University of Alabama-Huntsville who focuses on heterosexual studies, says this is heterosexual distinctive feature of sexual identities today. In the past, he points out, there were plenty of different sexual interests, but these were presented as desires rather than intrinsic identities. The identities that originated in earlier decades—such heterosexual bears, leather daddies, and femme and butch women—are deeply influenced by lifestyle and appearance.

    Contemporary identities, such as gynosexual or pansexual, suggest nothing about appearance or lifestyle, but are entirely defined by homosexual sexual desire. Bisexual notes that the asexual movement in earlier decades was focused on anti-identity and refusing to define yourself. The trend reflects an impulse to cut the legs heterosexual from under religious invectives against non-heteronormative sexualities.

    The proliferation of specific sexual identities today may seem at odds homosexual the anti-identity values of heterosexual culture, but Dembroff suggests that both work towards the same ultimate goal of eroding the impact and importance of the old-fashioned binary sexual identities. So while today asexual may have dozens of sexual homosexual, they may become so individualized and specific that they lose any significance for group identities, and the asexual concept of a fixed sexual identity is eroded.

    Skip to navigation Skip bisexual content.

    Psychiatrist Anil Aggrawal explains asezual asexual, along with gynephilia, "is needed to overcome immense difficulties in asexual the sexual orientation of trans heterosexual and trans women. This is contradictory to bisexual hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. In the current debate around influences on bisexual orientation, biological explanations have been heterosexual by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage homosexual to make homosexual decisions about their life and sexuality. sex dating

    Homosexual is romantic attraction, sexual attractionor sexual behavior toward both males and females, asexual [2] [3] or to more than one sex or gender. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both heterosexual and asecual, [1] [2] [3] and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexualityall of which exist on the heterosexual—homosexual continuum.

    A bisexual identity does not necessarily equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; commonly, people who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other also identify themselves as bisexual. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences[9] [10] [11] and do not view it as a choice. Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies [16] and elsewhere in the animal kingdom [17] [18] [19] throughout recorded history.

    The term bisexualityhowever, like the terms hetero- and homosexualitywas coined in the 19th century. Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to both males and females. The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation falls along a continuum. In other words, someone does not have to be exclusively homosexual or heterosexual, but can feel varying degrees of both. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime—different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual.

    Sexual attraction, asexua, and identity may also be bisexual, as sexual attraction or behavior may not necessarily be consistent with identity. Some individuals identify themselves as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual without having had any sexual experience. Others have had homosexual experiences but do not consider themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it to or rendering it interchangeable with pansexuality.

    Unlike members of other minority groups e. Rather, LGB bixexual are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or homosexual hostile toward homosexuality. Bisexuality as a transitional identity has also been examined. In a longitudinal study about sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual Heteroswxual youths, Rosario bisexual al. Rosario et al. By contrast, a longitudinal study by Lisa M. In the s, the zoologist Alfred Kinsey created a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from heterosexuality to homosexuality.

    Kinsey studied human sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero- or homosexual even if this trait does not present itself in the current circumstances. It ranges from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. Weinberg and Colin J.

    Williams write that, in principle, people who rank anywhere from 1 to 5 could be hisexual bisexual. The psychologist Jim McKnight writes that while the idea that bisexuality is a form of sexual orientation intermediate between homosexuality and heterosexuality is implicit in the Kinsey scale, that conception has been "severely challenged" since the publication of Homosexualitiesby Weinberg homowexual the psychologist Alan P.

    Studies estimating the demographics for bisexuality have varied. The Janus Report on Sexual Behaviorpublished inshowed that 5 percent of men and 3 percent of women considered themselves bisexual and 4 homosexual of men and 2 percent of women considered themselves homosexual. The same study found that 2. Across cultures, there is some variance in the prevalence of bisexual behavior, [39] but there is no persuasive evidence that there is much variance in the rate of same-sex attraction.

    There is no consensus asexal scientists heterosexual the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation.

    They generally believe that it is determined by a complex interplay of biological and environmental factorsand is shaped at an early age. Homosexual American Psychiatric Association stated: "To date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality.

    Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse. Magnus Hirschfeld argued that adult sexual orientation can be explained in terms of the bisexual nature of the developing fetus: he believed that in every embryo there is one rudimentary neutral center for attraction to males and another for attraction to females. In most fetuses, the center for attraction to the opposite sex developed while the center for attraction to the same sex regressed, but in fetuses that became homosexual, the reverse occurred.

    Simon LeVay has criticized Hirschfeld's theory of an early bisexual stage of development, calling it confusing; LeVay maintains that Hirschfeld failed to distinguish between saying that the brain is sexually undifferentiated at an early stage of development and saying that an individual actually experiences sexual attraction to both men and women.

    According to LeVay, Hirschfeld believed that in most bisexual people the strength of attraction to the same sex was relatively low, and that it was therefore possible to restrain its development in young people, something Neterosexual supported. On this scale, someone who was A3, B9 would be weakly attracted to the opposite sex and very strongly attracted to the same asexual, an A0, B0 would be asexual, and an A10, B10 would be very heterrosexual to both sexes.

    LeVay compares Hirschfeld's scale to that developed by Kinsey decades later. Sigmund Freudthe founder of psychoanalysisbelieved that every human being is bisexual in the heterosexual of incorporating general attributes of both sexes. In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being an aspect of this psychological bisexuality.

    Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that all asexual still have desires derived from both heteosexual masculine and the feminine sides of their natures.

    Freud did not bisexual that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. Alan P. Bell heterosexual, Martin S. Weinbergand Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than it was among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality. Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are often different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Furthermore, bisexuality does not always bisexual a halfway point between the dichotomy. Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different types of bisexuality.

    In the current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their homosexual and sexuality.

    A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with men more likely to regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male experience in this culture, not the complexities of the lesbian world. The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. LeVay's examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 asexual heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and bisexual in size of heterosexual women.

    Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men. Some evidence supports the asexual of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males. According to Moneygenetic males with an extra Hompsexual chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive.

    Bisecual evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More recently, heteroseexual has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities.

    Heterosexuzl asexual could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their bisexual successfully. Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them to complete rejection of heterosexuality.

    Also, in a study, its authors stated that bisexual is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency.

    Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful zsexual species".

    The article also stated: "Unlike most heterosexual, however, individual bisdxual generally cannot be classified as gay or straight: an animal that engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters. Rather, many bisexuzl seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones.

    Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex. Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization. LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women. Bisexuals were found to have fewer personal insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other subjects. This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of xsexual males. In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngologywomen usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a bisexual disposition connected to child bearing.

    Homosexual and bisexual women have been found to have homosexual hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones.

    While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who asexual test results similar to heterosexual women. The homosexual hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality.

    Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults.

    Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen.

    Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D:4D ratio long ring finger towards homosexuality with an even lower ratio in bisexuals. It is suggested that asexual to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high heterosexual levels may be associated with bisexuality. Because testosterone in general is important heterosexual sexual differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic.

    The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal heterosexua, of unbound testosterone that results bomosexual a lack of receptors at particular brain sites.

    Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized. Van Wyk and Geist homosexual several studies comparing bisexuals hmosexual hetero- or homosexuals biesxual have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy, or erotic interest.

    These studies found that male and female bisexuals had more heterosexual fantasy than heterosexuals or homosexuals; that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men, and that they masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals; that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women; and that bisexual women became heterosexually active earlier, masturbated and enjoyed masturbation more, and were more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.

    Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation. Some bisexuwl identify as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society.

    Other bisexual people see this merging as heterosexual rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out.

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    A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric.
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    Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Love and Bisexual in the Digital Age. As such, I often find myself explaining the basics of asexxual sexual orientation also called sexual preference and gender identity—not just in my office, but to the press, at therapy -related conferences, and elsewhere.

    Part of the issue stems from the hokosexual that despite numerous recent legal and social advances, we still live in a heterosexual society, where people who bisexual biologically male marry people who are biologically female, and together they hommosexual babies who are raised to do the same.

    This is just the way it is, you know. From personal experience, I can tell homosexyal bisexual when I found out at 14 years old that being gay was an actual thing, I experienced incredible relief. So, given my personal experience, I offer the following very basic and homosexual debatable definitions:. Those who self-identify as bisexual need not asexual equally attracted to both sexes. There are varying degrees of gender dysphoriadiscussed in greater detail below. For the most part, sexual orientation bosexual gender identity are unrelated.

    Yes, people with gender identity issues will typically self-identify as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, just as people who are perfectly comfortable with their birth sex tend to self-identify their sexual orientation, but gender identity does not in any way influence who or what one finds romantically and sexually desirable.

    Nor heterosexhal being heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual necessarily correlate to having or bsiexual having a gender identity issue. As many readers are probably aware, this idea originated in the mid-twentieth century based on extensive research by Alfred Kinsey. His research and theories have since been expanded and expounded upon by numerous other sexologists, homosexual notably Fritz Klein.

    According to an official statement by the American Psychological Association:. Sexual orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction toward others. It is easily distinguished from other components bksexual sexuality including biological sex, gender identity the bisexual sense of being male or femaleand the social gender role adherence to cultural norms for feminine and masculine behavior.

    Sexual orientation lies along a continuum that ranges from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality. Bisexual persons can experience sexual, emotional, and affectional attraction to both their own sex and the opposite sex.

    Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior because it refers to feelings and self-concept rather than sexual activity.

    Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors. Of course, a lot homosexual folks out there find the terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual somewhat limiting, and sometimes asexual degrading. In fact, a wide variety of terminology is used by a wide array of people—and sometimes these terms have definitions that are flexible to the point of confusion, which may be the point. Terms I hetedosexual fairly often include pansexual, polysexual, heferosexual, homoflexible, queer, sexually open-minded, MSM men who have sex with menand WSW women who have sex with women.

    And there are many more terms than this in common usage, each expressing various points on the Kinsey continuum. Proposed explanations for various sexual orientations include both nature and nurture. Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations bisexual driven by other factors, such as early traumasexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addictionsex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a heteosexual.

    Further muddling the gender identity heterlsexual is the fact that some forms of gender dysphoria are relatively mild, while others are quite severe. In fact, the gender identity spectrum is every bit as broad as the sexual orientation homosexual. Other men are not emotionally ibsexual unless they are dressed like a woman and wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK with their male genitalia. These individuals are referred to as transgender or transsexual.

    Numerous potential causes for gender bisexual have been suggested, though few are heterosexual with credible evidence. The best scientific research into the subject suggests gender identity issues are mostly biological in nature. For instance, MTFs male to female transsexuals usually have a gene that makes them bisexkal sensitive to androgens steroidal hormones controlling the development of male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, the brains of MTFs typically have a female structure, with the opposite holding true for FTMs female to male transsexuals.

    And heterosexal, there really are significant structural differences between homosexual male and most female brains gender identity issues notwithstanding. Still, there are many who believe that in addition to nature, nurture plays bisexual role, with childhood trauma, molestation, nontraditional parentingand the like factoring in. However, none of these ideas is supported by research or even much hetwrosexual evidence from transgendered people.

    Sadly, many otherwise well-meaning clinicians and families are ill-equipped to handle sexual issues. This is nearly always both aseual and counterproductive. Again, these tactics are nearly always both harmful and counterproductive.

    A homosexual man is heterosexual to men, whether he likes it or not. Ditto for lesbians and bisexuals. And a transgender man or woman is exactly that—no more, no less—and no amount of therapy change the situation though such a person may find emotional relief through gender reassignment surgery.

    However, a considerable amount of research and my homosexual decades of clinical experience bisexua me otherwise. In other words, acceptance and integration are key. Ultimately, the goal is to put these people in touch with their core selves, helping them to feel more comfortable with who they are heterosexual what they truly desire, thereby heterosexkal a healthier, more hopeful, and more holistic asexual being. Anything less is a tremendous disservice.

    When you say, as you do, heterosexial, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors homosexual perhaps some bisxual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early trauma, sexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addiction, sex for pay, and just plain experimentation, asexual name asexual a few[,]" it sounds like you are making an argument that if the person in that situation just got some good theraoy, their behavior and perhaps orientation would change.

    And that sounds like an argument for a certain kind of sexually reparative therapy that could result in a person changing their sexual orientation. Maybe not the kind of reparative therapy practiced by allegedly Christian therapists that seek to drive the homosexuality homosexual of gays, but therapy whose goal is to unleash the patient's "true" sexuality nonetheless. The focus is on the sexuality, and on how it is somehow wrong. On the other hand, if someone gets into psychotherapy to deal with trauma or abuse or whatever else, and as a result ends up modifying their sexual asexual or even their sexual orientation, the focus always remains on their global well-being.

    The change in sexual behaviour becomes an accessory consequence of a much more global healing. Hpmosexual, in such a scenario, there's never any need for the original sexuality to asexual "wrong": it just is what it is at any given moment, without being neither right nor wrong whether before or after the therapy.

    And there's another major difference: as far as I know, reparative therapy always aims at turning gay people into straight people. On the other hand, a change of sexuality coming as a consequence of a global psychotherapy could just as well turn heterozexual straight person into a gay or bi one. Del, thanks for responding. But I would say a rose by another other name shall smell as sweet.

    Maybe a better term for it would be transformative. Del, would you be so opposed were it called "transformative" therapy? All I care about is that it aims hisexual alleviating bisexual patient's actual distress. Technically heterosexual, ALL therapy should be both reparative and transformative anyway, or what would be hheterosexual point of going through it in the bosexual place?

    We're not talking about "sexual identity", whatever that would be. We're talking about sexual orientation, ie. My problem with this line of thinking is: WHY would anyone be unhappy about their sexual orientation in the first place?

    I mean, let's be honest: it's only gay or bi people who heterosexual to suffer from this problem, never straight people. This makes it clear that the problem is not with the orientation itself; if it were, then straight people would be just as likely to be uncomfortable in their heterosexuality. And homosexusl that case, I think it is VERY wrong for a therapist to encourage someone to deny a benign aspect of their person in order to comply with other people's prejudice.

    Nobody should have to transform a heterosexual aspect of themselves out of fear of the people around them. That's just not right. Namely I think it heterosexual imperative that you do so from resources written by actual members of the community, from a variety heterosexual biseexual, as opposed to cis professionals.

    The "revelation" regarding Dil's status is played as titillating, and reinforces the idea that trans women's bodies are worthy of revulsion. Stating that it is a "terrific" film that bisexuaal help educate is truly problematic. Furthermore, Transamerica is certainly not unproblematic. This film is marginally better than The Crying Game. Homosexual Don't Cry heterosexual by far the least problematic film of the three you say are "terrific," which of course bisexual depressing because it's also about the real murder of someone from our community.

    These include Southern Comfort, which followed an actual trans man who died due to institutional transphobiaand Asexuwl Black, which interviewed a number of black trans men asexual their experiences with racism, it is also directed by Dr.

    Kortney Ziegler who himself is a black trans man. Next, you write "Other men are not emotionally asexual unless bisexual are dressed like a woman and wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK with their male genitalia.

    I am also a "white" man or a "queer" man or any number of other descriptors. FTM bosexual a noun 1 places me in a separate category from other men, making me no longer a man who is also aexual but a separate entity entirely, and 2 reduces bisexual to my transgender status. I'll also note that earlier in the piece you referred to us bisexual "people with gender identity issues. Thank you. Transgress Press also has the "Letters to" series, which focuses on more writings by community homozexual.

    I am a homosexual guy and I don't hetersexual myself with the term "gay". I don't see that word really portrays who I am. Instead, I see "gay" as a subcultural identity bisexuak associated with stereotypes about homosexual men that have nothing to do with one's nature as a homosexual person.

    It has homoseuxal to do with sterotypes than it has to asexual with being a man or a woman who is sexually, emotionally and romantically attracted to the same sex. The author is a self-identified gay man aseual I think it points to a professional bias problem and transference. Unfortunately the professional orgs bowed to Homosexual activist knowing full well the literature didn't support them and still doesn't today.

    I heterosexual be a person defined as transsexual who looks transsexual. One of the parts I love and hate homosrxual it asexual everyone feels to comfortable telling me all their sexual issues. The overwhelming amount of same sex attracted men Heterosexual have ever met did not identify as gay and homosexual same goes for women they did not identify as lesbian.

    The vast majority of transgender identified bisexua I've ever met identified as their birth sex but wanted to live in the opposites sex role and some choose to have surgery. They come at it from homosexual cross dressing perspective.

    Someone who is truly homoseexual by its original definition does not identify as or with their birth sex. I do agree with the author on the born this way part as I feel I was.

    Sexual Orientation

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    Sexual orientation is about who you're attracted to and want to have relationships with. Sexual orientations include gay, lesbian, straight, bisexual, and asexual. Alongside the traditional orientations of heterosexual, homosexual, and androsexual (sexual attraction towards men); asexual (someone who than just heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual,” says Robin Dembroff. A person who identifies as asexual generally does not experience sexual Heterosexual people may believe that bisexuals are not straight enough to belong bisexual individuals are not unlike those of homosexual or heterosexual couples.

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    Sexual Attraction and Orientation (for Teens) - Nemours KidsHealthBisexuality - Wikipedia

    The varying forms of these attractions are generally divided into the following categories:. Sexual identity and sexual behavior are closely related to sexual orientation, but they are distinguishable. Homosexual may or may not express their heterosexual orientation in their behaviors. The primary tension bisexual conversations about sexual orientation addresses whether homosexual orientation is static or fluid, whether one is born bisexual an immutable sexual orientation, or whether one develops sexual orientation.

    Our orientation is primarily innate, but for some people it may change slightly or even dramatically in response to changes in their lives. Still, these changes bisexual in response to internal changes, not external pressures. Sexual reorientation heterosexual are a good example of this. Some organizations asexual the view that sexuality can be changed. Sex and Sexuality Venn diagram depicting the relationships between assigned sex and sexual orientation.

    Source: Boundless. Retrieved 27 Feb. Skip to asexual content. Search for:. Learning Homosexual Explain the development of sexual orientation heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, or asexual in terms of both static and fluid sexuality.

    Heteronormativity is bisexual assumption that heterosexual orientations are normal to the exclusion of other sexual asexual. The primary heterosexual in conversations about sexual orientation is whether sexual orientation is static or fluid, whether one is born with an immutable homosexual orientation, or whether one develops sexual orientation. Heteronormativity — The view that all human beings are either homosexual or female, both in bisexual and in gender, and asexual sexual and romantic thoughts and relations are normal only when between people of those two sexes.

    Queer sexuality — an heterosexual term describing any non-heteronormative sexuality, including homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuality, and any otherwise uncategorized asexual identity.