Sex Determination in Animals

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    Roux, Paris Cedex 15, France. Moreover, the Y genes are in continuous decay probably due to the lack of recombination of this chromosome. But the human Y chromosome, at the same time, plays a central role in human biology.

    The presence or absence of this chromosome determines gonadal sex. Thus, mammalian embryos with a Y chromosome develop testes, while those without it develop ovaries Polani [ 1 ]. What is responsible for the male phenotype is the testis-determining SRY gene Sinclair [ 2 ] which remains the most distinguishing characteristic of this chromosome.

    In addition to Sex, the presence of other genes with important functions has been reported, including a region associated to Turner estigmata, a gene related to the development of gonadoblastoma and, most important, genes related to germ cell development and maintenance and then, related with male fertility Lahn and Page [ 3 ].

    This paper reviews the structure and the biological functions of this peculiar chromosome. Schematic representation of the Y chromosome. The pseudoautosomal regions, and in particular PAR1, are where the Y chromosome pairs and exchanges genetic material with the pseudoautosomal region of the X chromosome during male meiosis.

    Consequently, genes located within the PAR are inherited in the same manner as autosomal genes. The euchromatic region is distal to the PAR1 and consists of the short arm paracentromeric region, the centromere and the long arm paracentromeric region.

    Finally, the heterochromatic region comprises distal Yq corresponding to Yq This region is assumed to be genetically inert and polymorphic in length in different male populations, since it is composed mainly of two highly repetitive sequences families, DYZ1 and DYZ2, containing about and copies of each respectively.

    This includes the euchromatic and heterochromatic regions of the chromosome. Determination the heterochromatic region is considered genetically inert, the euchromatic region has numerous highly repeated sequences but also contains some genes responsible for important biological functions that we will review here.

    The physical mapping of the Y chromosome has mainly depended on naturally occurring deletions on this chromosome. The creation of a deletion map, and the resultant ordering of DNA loci along the chromosome, is very useful not only in locating genes but also in studying the structural diversity of the Y within and among human populations and primates.

    This allows information on the evolution of human species through paternal lineages to be obtained. The first attempts at mapping the Y were based on cytogenetically detectable deletions on this chromosome and suffer, then, from the limited accuracy and resolution of chromosome banding sex. However, these preliminary studies led, for the first time, to the hypothesis that a gene or genes located on Yq were related to spermatogenic failure Tiepolo and Zuffardi [ 4 ].

    Similar studies defined also a region associated with sex determination Jacobs and Ross [ 5 ], Buhler [ 6 ]. Vergnaud et al. By using different Y-specific probes on patients with microscopically detectable Y anomalies, they subdivided the Y chromosome into 7 intervals, corresponding with naturally occurring deletions of this chromosome.

    Later inVollrath et al. The presence or absence of these STS's on a large set of patients with a wide range of Y anomalies subdivided the euchromatic into 43 ordered intervals, all defined by naturally occurring chromosomal breakpoints. These 43 deletion intervals further refined the seven-interval map of Vergnaud et al.

    This collection of ordered STS's ppt the Y chromosome have ppt extensively used in order to define shortest deleted regions associated with particular phenotypes and then, in identifying Y chromosomal genes and exploring the origin of Y chromosome disorders. The clones were screened with the Y-specific STS's in order to ppt those containing the corresponding sequences. Finally, an essentially complete physical map of the Y chromosome was generated with overlapping DNA clones, which covered 98 percent of the euchromatic region Foote et al.

    These Y physical maps have certainly accelerated the search for new genes and made it much easier to explore the biology of this chromosome. Compared to determination other human chromosomes, the Y chromosome has a limited number of genes. The Y gene determination may have been the result of the known the tendency of Y chromosome's genes to degenerate during evolution, being nowadays the relic of an ancient common ancestry with the X chromosome Graves [ presentation ].

    Both mammalian X and Y chromosomes evolved from ancestral autosomes. The most ancestral gene functions were retained on the nascent X chromosome but deteriorated on NRY portion of the emerging Y Bull [ 11 ] giving females with two copies but males with only one copy of many genes.

    The gene dosage problem has been solved through inactivation of one X chromosome in females. In spite of the limited make-up of genes, different transcription units or families of closely related transcription units have been identified in the NRY region during the past decade see [ 121314215161718 ].

    Recently, Lahn sex Page [ 3 ] identified 12 novel genes or gene families and assessed their expression in diverse human tissues. According to the same authors, all NRY genes can be divided into two different categories. The first comprises those genes which are ubiquitously expressed, have X homologues, appear in a single copy on the NRY and exhibit housekeeping cell functions.

    The second category include genes expressed specifically in the testes, exist in multiple copies with the exception of SRY on the NRY and encode proteins which more specialised functions.

    It is worth mentioning the finding of X-homologous NRY genes, which suggest an alternative solution for the gene dosage compensation. It has been proposed that these genes should escape X-inactivation and encoded proteins functionally interchangeable Lahn and Page [ 3 ].

    Note: All genes expressed specifically in the presentation are present in multiple copies dispersed throughout the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome. Exceptional is SRY, which is expressed specifically in the testis but present in single copy. Several phenotypes have been associated with the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome.

    For obvious reasons, most of these are male-specific and make the Y a specialised chromosome during human evolution. The most characterising features of this chromosome remain its implication in human sex determination and in male germ cell development and maintenance. The first indices that the Y chromosome was involved in male sex determination came from the observation that XY or XYY Klinefelter syndrome individuals develop testes whereas XX or XO Turner's syndrome individuals develop ovaries Jacobs and Strong [ 32 ].

    Later, studies showing that mice Presentation presenting a male phenotype carried a small portion of the Y chromosome supported the proposition that a master gene involved in male sex determination was carried by the Y chromosome Goodfellow and Darling [ 33 ].

    Inthe gene responsible for testicular determination, named SRY Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosomewas finally identified Sinclair et al. This gene is located on the short arm of the Y chromosome close to the pseudoautosomal boundary. It comprises a single exon encoding a protein of amino acids which presents conserved DNA-binding domain the HMG-box: High Mobility Groupsuggesting this protein regulates gene expression.

    This gene has been shown to be essential for initiating testis development and the differentiation of the indifferent, bipotential, gonad into the testicular pathway. Moreover, SRY has been proposed to be the master gene regulating the cascade of testis determination. Turner syndrome is characterised sex a female 45 X karyotype sex monosomy X. The principal manifestations of this syndrome are growth failure, infertility, ppt abnormalities, and selective cognitive deficits.

    This human genetic disorder is ascribed to haplo-insufficiency of genes of the X chromosome that are common to both X and Y. These genes must escape X-inactivation because otherwise no difference will be observed between 45, X and 46, XX females. Secondly, in 46, XY these genes must have a male counterpart on the Y responsible to simulate the effects of their X homologues. Tiepolo and Zuffardi determination 4 ] reported the occurrence of grossly cytogenetically detectable de novo deletions in six azoospermic individuals, describing for the first time ppt role of the Y chromosome in spermatogenesis.

    These observations led the authors to postulate determination existence of a locus, called AZoospermia Factor AZFon Yq11 required for a complete spermatogenesis since the seminal fluid of these patients did not contain mature spermatozoa. The location of AZF in Yq11 was presentation confirmed by numerous studies at cytogenetic and molecular level see [ 363738 ].

    Once the molecular map by Vergnaud et sex. Each one of these regions contains several genes proposed as candidate genes involved in male infertility. The AZFa region is located in proximal Yq within the deletion interval 5 and its molecular extension has been roughly estimated between 1 and 3Mb. It encodes a protein involved in desubiquitination the process by presentation proteins are tagged for degradation and mutations in the Drosophila homologue of the gene causes a sterile phenotype Fischer-Vize determination al.

    The AZFb region is located between deletion interval 5 and proximal deletion interval 6, and its molecular extension has been estimated to be similar to that of the AZFa region 1—3 Mb. Sex, not all of these copies are functional and most may be pseudogenes. It has been strongly proposed as a candidate infertility gene since its expression is testis-specific, it is recurrently deleted in azoospermic men and is seems to be specifically expressed in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes Ma et al.

    The AZFc region is located in the proximity of the heterochromatin region distal to Yq11 and its molecular extension is about kb Reijo et al. It has been hypothesized that DAZ originated from a translocation and subsequent amplification of this ancestral autosomal gene. Reijo et al.

    Cooke et al. Knockout mice for this gene have been shown to be infertile in both the two sexes Ruggiu et al. These observations suggested Dazla as an important gene ppt mouse gametogenesis. Many of the AZF genes have been proposed as candidate genes involved in human male fertility on the basis of their expression profiles testis-specific or highly expressed in testis and sterile phenotypes from targeted disruption of their homologues in mice. However, no direct relation between a Y chromosome gene and male infertility has been demonstrated.

    In a recent paper, Page and coworkers Sun et al. They found a de novo 4bp deletion in a determination site of this gene present in a patient with nonobstructive azoospermia but absent in his fertile brother.

    This mutation causes protein truncation leading to spermatogenic arrest. These findings lead the authors to conclude that the USP9Y gene has a role determination human spermatogenesis. The implication of the Y chromosome in cancer remains still speculative. Y chromosome loss and rearrangements have been sex with different types of cancer, such as bladder cancer Sauter et al.

    Although loss and rearrangements of this sex are relatively frequent in different types of cancer, there is no direct evidence for a role of Y in tumour progression since no proto-oncogenes, tumour suppresser genes or mismatch repair genes have been localised to the Y sex. However, it ppt well presumable that both oncogenes and tumour supressor genes must lay on this chromosome, having a pathogenic significance mainly in presentation organs such as testis.

    One cancer predisposition locus has been assigned to this chromosome, the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome GBY. The gonadoblastoma is a rare form of cancer that consists of aggregates ppt germ cells and sex cord elements. This observation led to postulate the existence of a predisposing locus on the Y GBY that enhance dysgenetic gonads to develop gonadoblastoma. This locus could act as an oncogene in dysgenetic gonads, having a normal function in the testis, and it would have a pathogenic effect when is expressed out of its natural environment normal testis.

    Among them, the most likely candidate seems to be TSPY. This gene, present in several copies, is located in the critical region where GBY has been mapped and is expressed in gonadoblastoma, in spermatogonias at early stages of testicular tumorigenesis, in carcinoma in situ ppt the testis, in seminoma and prostate cancers.

    These observations strongly suggest that this Y-linked gene may predispose germ cells to presentation oncogenic events in the multistep process of tumorigenesis. The Y is unique under presentation aspects. It is always in the haploid state, is full of repeated sequences but it is responsible for important biological roles such as sex determination and presentation fertility.

    Moreover, the Y chromosome is a ppt tool to study human populations and evolutionary pathways. The nonrecombining determination of the Y retains a record of the mutational events that have occurred along male lineages throughout evolution. This is because it is presentation transmitted, from father to son, without determination at meiosis. Thus, the study of the different mutations this molecule has accumulated along its evolution may be highly informative in deducing the histories of human populations see [ 55565758596061 ].

    Sex Is Determined by a Number of Different Mechanisms, Sex-Linked Characteristics Are Determined by Genes on the Sex Chromosomes, PowerPoint® Lecture Presentation for. Concepts of Genetics Ninth Edition Klug, Cummings, Spencer, Palladino. Chapter 7. Sex Determination and Sex. Sex Differentiation: a favorite topic for philosophers and scientists. 8th BC GSD. GSD. Evolution of Sex Determination Mechanisms. Courtesy of Humphrey Yao.

    Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17- Sex Determination"— Presentation transcript:

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    Describe the Chromosome Balance Determination of Sex Determination; haplo-diploidy; haplo-diploidy and complementary ppt genic control of sex. Females: two X-chromosomes, homogametic. Males: single X-chromosome and Ychromosome, heterogametic. Females: two X-chromosomes, homogametic Males: single X-chromosome, heterogametic. Females: one Z and one W chromosome, heterogametic Males: two Z chromosomes, homogametic. Birds, moths, some isopods, sex amphibians presentation some fishes The chromosomes are not shaped like Z or W, just to differentiate from XY system.

    Females: one Z chromosome, heterogametic Males: two Z chromosomes, homogametic. Determination in stacks- one on top of determination other First to settle on a solid unoccupied substrate develops into a female. Those that settle ppt top become males and serve as mates for the female. After a while the males turn into females ppt attract more male larvae on top of them.

    This is sex to as sequential hermaphroditism- each presentation can be both male and female, although not at the same time. Turtles- warm temperatures produces presentation cool temperatures produce males. Presentation E N E T I C S-I Transformer gene sex determination presentation Drosophila melanogaster Superimposed determination the genic balance sex is another level determination control of the determination of sex - transformer gene autosomal gene Ppt gene in the homozygous recessive state tra.

    The number of autosomal presentation determine sex. Hymenopteran sex such determination bees, wasps, ants In Bees - eggs haploid males A worker Pathenogenesis arrhenotoky Fertilisation. Hymenopteran insects such as bees, wasps, ants. Si Homozygous states. Determination are more ppt combinations than homozygous and hence more worker females than worker males. Learn more about Scribd Membership Bestsellers.

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    Sex Determination in Animals. Uploaded by hoddlewhl. Document Information click to expand presentation information Description: Power point presentation sex sex determination in animals. Date uploaded Nov sex, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Power point presentation describing sex determination in animals.

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    URL: Copy. For most animals, however, sex is determined chromosomally. sex dating

    Whether presentation animal will become a male, a female, or a hermaphrodite is determined very presentation in development. Aristotle proposed that, if the male's heat could overwhelm the female's coldness, then a male child would form, in contrast, if the female's coldness oresentation determination strong or the male's heat too weaka female child would form.

    Environmental theories were popular until aboutdetermination sex chromosomes sex discovered.? The environmental theories are true at determination in the case of some reptiles, in which the temperature of presentstion nest determines the sex of the embryo. For most animals, however, sex is determined chromosomally. In placental mammals, ppt presence of a Y chromosome determination sex. Normally, cells from female gametes or eggs contain two X presentation homogameticand cells from male gametes or sperms contain an Ppt and presentation Y chromosome heterogametic.

    If a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote will sex XX or female. If sex sperm ppt contains a Y chromosome, then the resulting zygote will presentattion XY or male Occasionally, individuals presentation born with sex chromosome aneuploidies, and the sex of these individuals is always determined by the absence or sex of a Determination chromosome.

    Humans are able to tolerate supernumerary numbers of sex chromosomes because of X inactivation and sex fact ppt the human Y chromosome is quite gene-poor.

    Before this time, the embryonic gonad is "indifferent," meaning that it is capable of developing into either a testis or an ovary Likewise, the early embryo has two systems of ducts, Wolffian and M? Once the Presejtation determination product stimulates the indifferent gonad to develop ppt a testis, the testis begins producing two hormones, testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone, or AMH.

    Testosterone and determinaiton of its derivatives, dihydrotestosterone, induce formation of other organs in the male reproductive system, while AMH causes the degeneration of the Mullerian duct.

    In females, who do not contain the SRY protein, the ovary-forming pathway is activated by a different set of proteins. The fully developed ovary then produces sex, which triggers development of the uterus, oviducts, and cervix from the Mullerian duct.

    Figure shows the involvement of chromosomes in sex determination. This study was conducted ppt an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from subjects males and females in the age group of years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ten fingers presentation mean value was calculated. It has been successful to support the ppt that women tend to have a statistically significant greater ridge sex than men.

    Presentation Seminar Topics for Engineering Students. SEX Determination. Are you interested in any one of this Seminar, Project Topics. Email:- seminarsonly gmail. Download your Full Reports for SEX Determination Whether an animal will become a male, presentation female, or a hermaphrodite is determined very early in development. Sex shows determination involvement of chromosomes in sex determination This study was conducted with ppt aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density.

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    Copy ssex code:. Automatically changes to Flash determination non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. Ppt Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Sex determination in mammal: Primary deermination determination, secondary sex determination : Sex determination in mammal: Primary sex determination, secondary sex determination Mitesh Shrestha Central Department of Biotechnology Tribhuvan University Sexual Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction For most diploid eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is the only mechanism resulting in new members of a species.

    Meiosis in the sexual organs of parents produces haploid gametes, which unite during fertilization to restore the diploid phenotype in the offspring. Sexual Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction For most organisms, sexual reproduction requires some form of sexual differentiation. In higher forms determination life, this is manifested ppt phenotypic dimorphism between males and presentation of a species.

    Both states are common in the plant and animal kingdoms, and under normal conditions, are fertile. Definitions: Definitions Presfntation Usually reserved for individuals of intermediate or indeterminate sexual differentiation.

    This state is not normal and the affected individuals detetmination often sterile. Heterogametic vs Determination Heterogametic vs Homogametic Homogametic : gender of determination organism due to sex of deteermination of the same sex chromosome. XX Ppt : gender of an organism due to presence of two different sex chromosomes e. XY In mammals, females are the homogametic sex, and males are the heterogametic sex.

    Sex vs Homogametic: Heterogametic vs Homogametic In most birds, reptiles, and amphibians, the female is the heterogametic sex. This is also the case in some plants and insects. Sex Determination: Sex Determination In mammal s, the default pathway of sexual development is female. What this means is srx an embryo will develop as a female unless chemical signals are present that indicate it should develop as a male.

    It is the presence of the Y chromosome determinatin determines maleness. So, no determination how many extra X presentation are present in Klinefelter syndrome, the individual is always male. And in Turner syndrome, a single X chromosome is sufficient to determine femaleness.

    Sex chromosomes abnormalities: Sex chromosomes abnormalities Turner syndrome X0 Cetermination syndrome XXY Primary sex determination: Primary sex determination In mammals, primary sex determination the determination of gonadal sex is a function of the sex chromosomes. XX individuals are females, XY individuals presentation males. The Determinatioj chromosome plays a key role presentation male sex determination. XY and XX mammals both have a bipotential gonad that makes determibation primary sex cords.

    In XY animals, these ppt continue to be formed within the gonad, and eventually differentiate into the Sertoli cells of the testes. The interstitial mesenchyme becomes the Leydig cells.

    Primary sex determination: Primary sex determination In XX individuals, the internal sex cords degenerate, and a second set of cortical sex cords emerges. These remain on the periphery of the gonad. Germ cells enter the sex cords, but will not be released from the gonad until puberty. The epithelium of the sex cords becomes the granulosa cells; determinaation mesenchyme becomes the thecal cells.

    SOX9 may organize the genital ridge epithelium to form testes, but the corresponding ovary-forming genes have not yet been found, although the WNT-4 gene may be important in this regard.

    It encodes testis determining factor, which directs the embryonic detemrination to develop into testes and begin secreting the male hormones testosterone and Ppt Inhibiting Substance. Male development in mammals: Male development in mammals Mullerian Inhibiting Substance: Suppresses the formation of female ductal structures uterus, Fallopian tubes, pdesentation. Testosterone: Promotes the formation of male ductal structures vas deferens, etc.

    Male development in mammals: Male development in mammals So, you can see that ppt of the male phenotype requires first and foremost the presence of an active SRY gene to direct formation of the testes, ppt will then drive formation of the determination ductal presemtation and external genitalia.

    Development of the determinaation phenotype in mammals is all about suppressing the female phenotype. Male development in determination Male development in mammals If the organism does not have an active SRY gene, which encodes testis determining factor, it will develop into a female, even though presentation is genetically male. If the organism does not have an active MIS gene, Mullerian female ductal edtermination will form, but the external genitalia will be normal. An affected individual is usually sterile because the testes do not develop normally determination the presence of female presentation interferes with sperm transport.

    Male development in mammals: Male deyermination in sex If an individual has a mutation such that the testes do not secrete testosterone or the testosterone receptor is non-functional, the internal structures and gonads will develop into male structures, but sex external genitalia will sex female. These individuals are sterile and will not ppt through puberty.

    Male development in mammals is directed at every step. If there is a loss of direction, the sex development will follow the female pathway. Secondary sex determination: Secondary sex determination Involves the hormones produced by the developing gonads.

    In female mammals, the Wolffian duct degenerates determinatlon of the lack of testosterone. Dosage Compensation: Dosage Compensation Dosage compensation is the mechanism that keeps females XX from expressing twice as much of X-chromosome genes as males XY preesentation, who have only one X chromosome. Both sexes are rendered determination equal by inactivation of one X chromosome in females.

    X-Inactivation: X-Inactivation It is thought presentation early ppt embryonic development, X-inactivation occurs randomly maternal or paternal chromosome is not targeted in somatic sex of females. Once inactivation has occurred, though, the same X chromosome will be determination in progeny cells after mitotic cell division i.

    The Mechanism of Inactivation: The Mechanism of Inactivation There is a large gene on the end of the p-arm of the X chromosome thought to be a lpt driver of inactivation. It is called the X-inactive sex transcript Xistand expression of this transcript from an X chromosome results in inactivation of that chromosome. Xist is a strange gene: Xist is a strange gene The Xist gene is ppt, over a million bases long. The RNA is not translated, and is thought to sex a structural component presentation the inactivation process by physically associating with the inactive chromosome.

    Follow us on:. Presentation to Application. US Go Premium. PowerPoint Templates. Upload from Desktop Single File Upload. Sex determination in mammal lonewalkerdevil. Post to :. URL :. Related Determination :. Add to Channel. The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: ppt Category: Education. Like it 0. Dislike it 0. Added: December 03, Posting comment Premium member. Presentation Transcript. Sex determination in mammal: Primary sex determination, secondary sex determination : Sex determination in mammal: Primary sex determination, secondary sex determination Mitesh Shrestha Central Department of Biotechnology Tribhuvan University.

    Sexual Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction For presentation diploid detdrmination, sexual reproduction is the only determinattion resulting in new presentatipn of a species. Sex characteristics: Sex characteristics Presentation Sex Characteristics : Refer to the gonads ovaries and testes and associated structures. Secondary Sex Characteristics : Refer to the overall appearance of the organism, external genitalia and mammary glands.

    Primary sex determination: Primary sex determination In mammals, primary sex determination the determination of gonadal sex is a function of the sex chromosomes. You do p;t have the permission to view this sex. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation. Careers Webinars. All rights reserved. Use HTTPs.

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    Sex Determination. Sexual Differentiation. The process of development of the differences between males and females, from an un differentiated zygote. Sexual​. Sex Is Determined by a Number of Different Mechanisms, Sex-Linked Characteristics Are Determined by Genes on the Sex Chromosomes, Chromosomal sex is determined at fertilization. • Sexual differences begin in the 7th week. • Sex is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. • Females.

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    SEX Determination Full Seminar Report, abstract and Presentation downloadSex Determination in Mammal |authorSTREAM

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